Glossary of Ingredients

Glossary Of Ingredients

Click an ingredient to learn more about it!


Acetyl-L-carnitine is generally used to improve brain functioning and cognition [R].

  • Helps mitochondrial and energy function
  • Helps brain function
  • Helps with brain and bodily fatigue
  • Can improve performance
  • Improves semen quality and fertility in med

Acetyl-L-carnitine is a supplement form of L-carnitine that can pass your blood-brain barrier, giving it access to the dense collection of mitochondria in your brain, as well as to the mitochondria in the rest of your body. That explains why ALCAR is becoming so popular as a nootropic supplement (something that makes your brain work better).

Here’s what the research has to say about using ALCAR to make your brain work better:

More mental & physical energy: Older men and women who took ALCAR daily saw a significant boost to their physical and mental energy levels, as well as better overall cognitive ability.[3]

Improves cognitive function: People with low carnitine levels see a major decrease in brain function. Taking ALCAR improves that brain function. A lot. In a recent study, 8 out of 14 participants reversed a diagnosis of dementia and returned to their full cognitive abilities after taking ALCAR daily. [4]

Lowers inflammation: Acetyl-L-carnitine decreases inflammation in healthy adults. Part of it is because ALCAR increases glutathione, your body’s master antioxidant.[5] Side note: glutathione is awesome for hacking hangovers. And, as it turns out, ALCAR decreases damage to brain cells after drinking, too.[6]

Boosts circulation: In healthy adults, ALCAR increased circulation and nutrient-rich blood flow after a high-fat meal.[7] Good blood flow is an essential part of muscle and brain function.

Improves focus: Acetyl-L-carnitine improves attention, both in kids with ADHD[8] and adults who struggle with mental fatigue.[9]


Alpha-Liopic Acid

Alpha-lipoic acid is an organic compound found in all human cells.

It’s made inside the mitochondria — also known as the powerhouse of the cell — where it helps enzymes turn nutrients into energy (1).

What’s more, it has powerful antioxidant properties.

Alpha-lipoic acid is both water- and fat-soluble, which allows it to work in every cell or tissue in the body. Meanwhile, most other antioxidants are only either water- or fat-soluble (2).

For instance, vitamin C is just water-soluble, while vitamin E is just fat-soluble.

The antioxidant properties of alpha-lipoic acid have been linked to benefits like lower blood sugar levels, reduced inflammation, slowed skin aging and improved nerve function.

Humans only produce alpha-lipoic acid in small amounts. That’s why many turn to certain foods or supplements to optimize their intake.

Animal products like red meat and organ meats are great sources of alpha-lipoic acid, but plant foods like broccoli, tomatoes, spinach and Brussels sprouts also contain it.

That said, supplements can pack up to 1,000 times more alpha-lipoic acid than food sources (3).


In alternative medicine, angelica is used primarily for digestive complaints. Angelica's bitter taste is thought to improve digestion.

Angelica may contain substances that relax intestinal muscles, which can help relieve mild cramps, bloating, and gas, according to some alternative medicine proponents.

Pregnant women should not use angelica.

Angelica is used for heartburn, intestinal gas (flatulence), loss of appetite (anorexia), arthritis, circulation problems, "runny nose" (respiratory catarrh), nervousness, plague, and trouble sleeping (insomnia).

Upset stomach (dyspepsia), when a combination of angelica and five other herbs is used. A specific combination product containing angelica (Iberogast, Medical Futures, Inc) seems to improve symptoms of upset stomach including acid reflux, stomach pain, cramping, nausea, and vomiting. The combination includes angelica plus peppermint leaf, clown's mustard plant, German chamomile, caraway, licorice, milk thistle, celandine, and lemon balm.


The gentle nature of anise seed tea makes it an excellent choice for nursing mothers. Anise seed tea is known as a galactagogue, a food that promotes the production of breast milk. This is because of anethole, a chemical compound found in anise seed that acts as a phytoestrogen. Phytoestrogens are plant chemicals that mimic estrogen in the body, thus increasing the body’s ability to enact estrogen-based processes. This includes the production of breast milk. By giving the body higher estrogen levels, anise seed tea can help mothers to improve their breast milk supply and make it easier for them to nurse their infants.

Anise seed is a sweet carminative spice-carminative because it soothes the intestine, is anti-spasmodic and anti-inflammatory, reducing cramps, relieving flatulence and improving digestion. Anise seed tea was taken in ancient Greece to "bring down the milk." In China, both anise seed and star-anise are used as a galactagogue. It is best to avoid star-anise, as commercial products may be contaminated with Japanese star-anise, which is toxic.

Umbel seeds, including anise, share the following properties: they are estrogenic and relaxing (sedative); they support digestion, relieve flatulence (may ease a baby's colic through the mother's milk), and they aid in treating bronchitis and bronchial asthma (are anti-spasmodic).

Artichoke Leaf

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a gastrointestinal disorder that affects 22% of the population. Some symptoms include abdominal pain, diarrhea, flatulence, and constipation. 1

Many factors contribute to IBS: abnormal gut movement, imbalanced intestinal microbes, genetic factors, inflammation, and immune disorders, among others. 2

Artichoke has both preventive and curative effects on IBS. It balances the intestinal microbiota and also stops muscle spasms. These effects can help reduce IBS symptoms (R). 3

Cynarin, a natural compound found in artichoke, stimulates bile production. This helps accelerate gut movement and also support fat digestion and vitamin absorption (R, R). Artichoke extract also helps with digestion by stopping muscle spasms in the gut. 4 5

Artichoke aids digestive health and can help patients suffering from indigestion, bloating, nausea, and heartburn (collectively called dyspepsia) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). 6 7

In a study, researchers treated 247 patients with functional dyspepsia with either globe artichoke leaf extract or placebo (DB-RCT). The artichoke group improved dyspepsia symptoms compared to placebo. 8

The globe artichoke extract was especially effective in easing fullness and reducing flatulence. However, the artichoke extract was barely more effective than the placebo in reducing the pain and nausea caused by indigestion.


Blessed Thistle

Blessed thistle (Cnicus benedictus), not to be confused with milk thistle (Silybum marianum), was once used to treat the bubonic plague. Today, people use the flowering plant’s blossoms, leaves, and stems for many things, such as increasing breast milk production and soothing indigestion.

Not all mothers naturally produce enough breast milk. Some of those who need extra help take blessed thistle, which is thought to stimulate breast milk production.

According to a 2016 review, blessed thistle is commonly used as an herbal galactagogue. A galactagogue is a food, herb, or medication that increases the flow of breast milk, usually by increasing prolactin levels. However, the review also noted that there haven’t been enough high-quality clinical trials to really understand how well it works.

Liver Protection

Classed as a cholagogue herb, Blessed Thistle stimulates the production of bile which assists in detoxification of the liver. This in turn leads to a decrease in symptoms associated with poor liver function such as; fatigue, loss of appetite, nausea and brain fog. This liver supportive herb is often recommended to people who need to regain their appetite when recovering from illness or from certain treatments known to cause loss of appetite.

Digestive Health

The above mentioned stimulation of bile will in turn stimulate the production of gastric juices and saliva. This allows the body to digest fat more effectively, thus reducing cholesterol and helping to prevent gall stones. Blessed Thistle is also high in sesquiterpene lactones, such as cnicin - these lactones are reported to stimulate digestive activity by increasing the secretion of digestive enzymes which leads to improved digestion and appetite.


Two compounds found in Blessed Thistle - polyacetylene and cnicin - can help your body battle bacterial infections. Some studies have shown these compounds to be effective against Bacillus subtilis, Brucella species, Escherichia coli, Proteus species, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus faecalis.


Blessed Thistle has anti-inflammatory characteristics that have been observed to decrease or completely cease inflammation in addition to helping to remedy infections. This action is again thought to be due to the plant compound cnicin which is known to have anti-inflammatory activity. Nevertheless, persons with inflammatory bowel problems shouldn’t take this herb before getting the opinion of their personal health-care professional.

Celery Seed


Chanca Piedra

  • Stimulates bile production
  • Relaxes epithelial tissue
  • Increases ejection fraction
  • Helps with Kidney Stones and Gallstones 1 2
  • Improves Liver Health 1 2

Corn Silk

Latin Name: Zea Mays

A mild and soothing diuretic agent, corn silk is useful for kidney inflammation and relieving discomfort associated with urinary tract conditions such as inflamed bladder and painful urination. It is useful for renal problems in children and, combined with other herbs, as a urinary demulcent for cystitis, urethritis, prostatitis and similar conditions.


Dandelions are a rich source of beta-carotene and polyphenolic compounds, both of which are known to have strong antioxidant capabilities that can prevent aging and certain diseases.

Small animal and test-tube studies suggest that dandelion have a significant anti-inflammatory capacity, though more research is needed to better understand how dandelion affect inflammation in humans.

The dandelion plant contains bioactive compounds that have been shown to reduce blood sugar in animal and test-tube studies. More research is needed to determine if the same effect would be seen in humans.

Some animal studies have shown reduced cholesterol levels after consuming dandelion. More research is needed to understand how this plant affects levels in humans.

Dandelion may lower blood pressure due to their diuretic effect and potassium content. However, very little formal research has been conducted to support this claim.

Animal studies have shown that dandelion protects liver tissue from toxic substances and oxidative stress, but more research is needed to determine their effect on liver health in humans.

Some animal studies have shown that bioactive components in dandelion may support weight loss, but no human studies have evaluated this effect.

Research indicates that dandelion may increase contractions and movement of your gastrointestinal (GI) tract, acting as a treatment for constipation and indigestion. This effect is likely due to the prebiotic fiber inulin.

Early research indicates that dandelion has antiviral and antimicrobial properties, though clear applications for medicinal use have yet to be determined.

Devil's Claw

Devil’s claw, scientifically known as Harpagophytum procumbens, is a plant native to South Africa. It owes its ominous name to its fruit, which bears several small, hook-like projections.

Traditionally, the roots of this plant have been used to treat a wide range of ailments, such as fever, pain, arthritis, and indigestion.1

May Reduce Inflammation

Inflammation is your body’s natural response to injury and infection. When you cut your finger, bang your knee or come down with the flu, your body responds by activating your immune system. 6

While some inflammation is necessary to defend your body against harm, chronic inflammation can be detrimental to health. In fact, ongoing research has linked chronic inflammation to heart disease, diabetes and brain disorders. 7 8 9

Of course, there are also conditions directly characterized by inflammation, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), arthritis and gout. 10 11 12

Devil’s claw has been proposed as a potential remedy for inflammatory conditions because it contains plant compounds called iridoid glycosides, particularly harpagoside. In test-tube and animal studies, harpagoside has curbed inflammatory responses.13

For example, a study in mice showed that harpagoside significantly suppressed the action of cytokines, which are molecules in your body known to promote inflammation.14

Though devil’s claw has not been studied extensively in humans, preliminary evidence suggests that it may be an alternative treatment for inflammatory conditions.

May Improve Osteoarthritis

Osteoarthritis is the most common form of arthritis, affecting over 30 million adults in the US.15

It occurs when the protective covering on the ends of your joint bones — called cartilage — wears down. This causes the bones to rub together, resulting in swelling, stiffness and pain. 16

More high-quality studies are needed, but current research suggests that devil’s claw may be effective at reducing pain associated with osteoarthritis.

For example, one clinical study involving 122 people with osteoarthritis of the knee and hip suggested that 2,610 mg of devil’s claw daily may be as effective at reducing osteoarthritis pain as diacerein, a medication commonly used to treat this condition. 17

Similarly, a 2-month study in 42 individuals with chronic osteoarthritis found that supplementing daily with devil’s claw in combination with turmeric and bromelain, which are thought to have anti-inflammatory effects as well, reduced pain by an average 46%.18


Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a common herb that many people use for cooking and healing. You can trace this sweet, licorice-flavored spice all the way back to ancient Egypt. For centuries, fennel has been given as a treatment for digestive problems and menstrual issues. It is also used by breastfeeding women to stimulate and increase the production of breast milk.

Fennel, Breastfeeding, and Increasing Breast Milk Supply:

Fennel is believed to be a galactagogue which is something that brings about more breast milk.

It's taken as an herbal treatment to help mothers who breastfeed to increase their breast milk supply. One of the reasons it may work for some women is that the fennel plant has estrogen-like properties.

Other Benefits and Uses for Fennel: 19

  • It has been used to promote healthy digestion and treat stomach upset and gas.
  • It can pass through breast milk to help a baby’s digestion and relieve the symptoms of colic.
  • It has been used for centuries to relieve menstrual problems and balance the menstrual cycle.
  • It can lower blood sugar levels in people with diabetes.
  • It can increase your metabolism and has been used for weight loss.
  • It has been used to loosen chest congestion.

For centuries, fennel has been used as a natural method to increase the supply of milk in lactating women. It was regarded as a galactagogue, which was thought to kick start and increase the production of milk after birth. The term galactagogue is a Greek word that derived from the words ‘galact’, meaning milk and ‘ogogue’ meaning ‘leading to’ or ‘promoting’.

Fennel has certain properties that are strikingly similar to estrogen, the hormone which is responsible for boosting your body’s breast milk. It contains something known as anethole, which is somewhat similar to phytoestrogen, which has similar properties as that of the hormone estrogen. Using fennel along with its component of anethole in a moderate dose will help you to naturally increase your body’s supply of breast milk. Fennel is looked upon as a herbal remedy to increase breast milk. 20


One 14-day study in 77 new mothers found that consuming fenugreek herbal tea increased breast milk production, which helped the babies gain more weight.

Another study split 66 mothers into three groups: one received fenugreek herbal tea, the second consumed a taste-matched placebo and the third received nothing.

The researchers found a relatively large increase in breast milk production. In fact, volume of pumped breast milk increased from around 1.15 ounces (34 ml) in the control and placebo groups to 2.47 ounces (73 ml) in the fenugreek group.

These studies used fenugreek herbal tea instead of supplements, but supplements would likely have similar effects.

The available studies support using fenugreek to increase breast milk production and the rate of weight gain in newborn babies.

Folic Acid

Vitamin B9, or folate, is a member of the B-complex vitamin group. Like all B-vitamins, folate plays vital roles in cellular metabolism and energy production.

More specifically, folate aids in DNA and RNA synthesis, which is especially important during periods of rapid growth (e.g., pregnancy and puberty). Folate also helps control homocysteine levels, which, if too high, can lead to a number of chronic conditions including cancer, heart disease, depression, and diabetes.

Folic acid exhibits efficient free radical scavenging activity (comparable to that of vitamin C and E) in a number of laboratory studies.

In rats exposed to arsenic, folic acid supplementation was able to mitigate DNA and mitochondrial damage by suppressing oxidative biomarkers (i.e., malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and hydroxyl radical (OH(-)) and increasing antioxidant enzyme (e.g., SOD and catalase) activity.

Folate is an antioxidant, supports healthy fetal development, may prevent heart disease, enhances brain function, aids in red blood cell production, is a natural antidepressant, may prevent hearing and vision loss, is anti-aging, promotes fertility, promotes a healthy immune system, helps with liver damage, helps with kidney disease, helps with bone strength.




Latin Name: Solidago virgaurea

Goldenrod is very soothing and healing. It is a useful diuretic for urinary tract problems, obstructions, kidney stones, and inflammation. It is helpful for hay fever and allergies to cats. It can be helpful for upper respiratory infections, and yeast infections like thrush. Topically, it is a good anti-inflammatory for sore muscles. As an anti-inflammatory urinary tract antiseptic, goldenrod may be helpful in cystitis, urethritis, and similar conditions affecting this system.

Holy Basil

Holy basil has been shown to have antidepressant and antianxiety properties similar to antidepressant drugs. Studies have shown that it can help people feel more social and less anxious.

Holy basil has been shown to boost your body’s health in a variety of ways. It can help protect against infection, lower your blood sugar, lower your cholesterol, ease joint pain, and protect your stomach.



Latin Name: Equisetum arvense

Horsetail is rich in the mineral silica, which is used along with calcium to form bones, nails, hair, and skin. Silica adds elasticity to tissues to make themf strong but not brittle. It is astringent and is useful for internal bleeding, such as blood in the urine. It has a mild diuretic effect. While it acts as a mild diuretic, its toning and astringent actions make it invaluable in the treatment of incontinence.


Latin Name: Equisetum arvense

Horsetail is rich in the mineral silica, which is used along with calcium to form bones, nails, hair, and skin. Silica adds elasticity to tissues to make them strong but not brittle. It is astringent and is useful for internal bleeding, such as blood in the urine. It has a mild diuretic effect. While it acts as a mild diuretic, its toning and astringent actions make it invaluable in the treatment of incontinence.

Kava Kava

Lemon Balm


A magnesium deficiency often results in symptoms like fatigue, depression, muscle cramping, and insomnia. It’s also closely associated with conditions that produce a chronic inflammatory stress component. According to a recent study:

"The findings show that many individuals have a low magnesium status associated with increased chronic inflammatory stress that could be alleviated by increased magnesium intake."



Milk Thistle

Milk thistle benefits work by drawing toxins out of the body that can cause a range of symptoms and diseases — including cancer development, high cholesterol, diabetes, kidney stones, gall bladder disorders, negative effects of chemotherapy, alcohol use, skin damage and much more.

As an antioxidant, milk thistle is equally powerful to other important nutrients like vitamin E or vitamin C, which help fight free radical damage and slow the aging process that can lead to disease development. It specifically contains high levels of lipophilic extracts from the seeds of the plant, which act as bioflavanoid antioxidants that increase immunity and slow down oxidative stress.

While it has many different benefits, milk thistle is most well-known for being a natural liver supporter and detoxifier. The liver constantly works hard to help defend us from toxins that are common in our everyday life, acting like a filter and removing harmful substances from the body.

Pantothenic Acid (Vitamin B5)

  • Helps with immune and nervous system function
  • Aids metabolism of fats and carbohydrates
  • Balances cholesterol levels
  • Reduces stress

Pantothenic Acid is an Anti-Inflammatory

Adrenal glands need CoA (and Panthothenic Acid) to produce cortisol. Cortisol is an important anti-inflammatory produced by the body.

Moreover, it suppresses the immune system and aids in fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism.

Several animal experiments recorded that a lack of vitamin B5 can affect the adrenal cortex to function properly.

Pantothenic acid Aids in Metabolism and is Needed for Bodily Function

Red blood cells need calcium pantothenate to be manufactured and it is also needed to help produce sex and steroid hormones.

It is also important in maintaining a healthy digestive tract and helps with the usage of other vitamins.

Vitamin B5 (D-Pantothenic acid) helps with the synthesis of essential lipids and neurotransmitters.

Since it is a precursor to coenzyme A, it is essential for the metabolism of lipids and carbohydrates.

Pantothenic Acid Helps Reduce Stress

Based on human and animal research it appears that coenzyme forms of Pantothenic acid may allow individuals to sustain adaptive response and minimize some of the systemic effects of stress.

Adrenal glands need pantothenic acid to make high levels of CoA. These glands make the hormone corticosterone.

This hormone is known to respond to the many kinds of stress. However, the reason that vitamin B5 may relieve stress during tests is still under research.

Pantothenic Acid Promotes Heart Health

By converting carbohydrates and fats into glucose, D-Pantothenic Acid helps balance and lower cholesterol levels in the body. It may also help to lower high blood pressure and prevent heart failure.

According to a triple-blinded placebo and diet controlled investigation Pantethine (a derivative of Vitamin B5) favorably altered total, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) and non-HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol in low to moderate cardiovascular risk participants.

Pantothenic acid was effective in treating a young boy with dilated cardiomyopathy (diseases of the heart muscle) according to one clinical report. Large doses of pantothenic acid produced a sustained improvement in myocardial function and growth

In one clinical study, Pantothenic acid drugs (calciipantothenas and pantethine) were effective in treating patients with coronary heart disease and stable angina of effort.

Pantothenic Acid is Essential for Liver Function

The liver has high concentrations of CoA (Pantothenic acid makes up CoA).

High concentration of CoA in the liver helps the body to get rid of the toxic substances we are exposed to, thus helping liver function properly.

Pantothenic Acid Helps Treat Respiratory Problems

Pantothenic acid in the form of Dexpanthenol in “Myer’s Cocktail” (Magnesium, Calcium, B vitamins and Vitamin C), when supplied to a five-year-old boy with a 2-year history of Asthma, showed a marked improvement and prevented further asthma attacks.

In another clinical case study of a 40-year old male presented with cold and a one-day history of nasal congestion and rhinorrhea (condition in which the nasal cavity is filled with a significant amount of mucous fluid) when given an oral infusion of 1 ml Vitamin B5 along with other components of the Myer’s cocktail was symptom-free by the end of the 10-minute treatment.

According to a pilot study in children with allergic rhinitis, a medical device grip-stop DMG with D-panthenol (also included lactoferrin, carboxymethyl -glucan and dipotassiumglycyrrhizinate) effectively reduced all considered symptoms of allergic rhinitis including nasal congestion.

Thus Pantothenic acid along with the other minerals and vitamins was effective against asthmatic bronchitis , upper respiratory tract infections, chronic sinusitis, and seasonal allergic rhinitis.


Pumpkin Seed

Red Asian Ginseng

Red Raspberry

Nutrients: Red raspberry leaf contains a variety of nutrients that are important during pregnancy and breastfeeding. The herb contains iron, calcium, magnesium, potassium and manganese. Red raspberry leaf is also a good source of B vitamins, including thiamin and niacin, as well as vitamins E and C.

Milk Supply: Galactogogues are herbs or medicines that enhance milk supply, advises the Ask Dr. Sears website. The mineral content of red raspberry tea might help increase a mother's milk supply, making it an herbal galactogogue, according to certified clinical nutritionist Jessica Stamm. The effectiveness of red raspberry tea may vary, and not all experts agree about milk supply claims. Often, just the process of taking the time to make yourself a cup of tea and sitting down to drink it can be beneficial for increasing your milk supply because you are pampering yourself and resting.


Although mostly used during pregnancy, red raspberry leaf can also have postpartum benefits. The APA (American Pregnancy Association) states red raspberry leaf can help increase breast milk supply, help the uterus return to pre-pregnancy size and help reduce postpartum depression. Most evidence of red raspberry leaf increasing breast milk is anecdotal, but it is considered safe to consume while breastfeeding.



Skullcap Herb

Studies showed that American skullcap has antioxidant properties that may help protect against Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, anxiety and depression.

These antioxidant capabilities were also linked to increased antioxidant activity in the liver, considered to be one of the slowest-recovering organs. The herb boosts the liver's efficiency, helping with reduction of toxin levels in the body and blood, and consequently enhancing well-being.

Furthermore, other properties discovered in American skullcap include:

  • Sedative

    American skullcap is a known nervine, and it has potential as treatment for epilepsy, hysteria, panic attacks, anxiety and delirium tremens. Meanwhile, people with sleep problems can use American skullcap since it's able to help induce sleep naturally, without the negative effects of prescription drugs and over-the-counter (OTC) sleep aids
  • Antispasmodic

    The herb can help minimize throat infections, headaches from stress, neuralgia and after-effects of incessant coughing. American skullcap can also be useful when treating withdrawal symptoms from tranquilizers and barbiturates, and may even benefit people with anorexia nervosa, fibromyalgia and mild Tourette's syndrome. People with nervous disorders who experienced seizures or other spasmodic side effects that occurred from a problem in the nervous system may also utilize American skullcap.
  • Analgesic

    This herb can help with pain relief all throughout the body, as it can reduce inflammation and deliver a major boost in wound healing and injury recovery.

Aside from these, American skullcap may help treat asthma and serve as a remedy for hiccups or hangovers. On the other hand, Chinese skullcap has shown anti-histamine properties that can help relieve asthma and allergies like hay fever. It's also an antioxidant that can reduce the risk of heart disease and limit damage after a heart attack. Lastly, it can serve as an herbal treatment for hepatitis.



Stinging Nettle

Tart Cherry




Uva Ursi

Latin Name: Arctostaphylos Uva-Ursi

A reliable diuretic with strong disinfectant and infection fighting properties, uva ursi is useful for kidney and bladder infections, irritated female organs, and other urogenital problems. Uva Ursi has a specific antiseptic and astringent effect on the membranes of the urinary system. It generally soothes, tones, and strengthens these tissues.

Valerian Root

Vitamin B1

All B vitamins are water-soluble. They help to convert carbohydrates, fats, and protein into energy, or glucose.

B vitamins are necessary for keeping the liver, skin, hair, and eyes healthy. They also play a role in the nervous system, and they are needed for good brain function.

The B vitamins are sometimes called anti-stress vitamins, because they boost the body's immune system in times of stress.

Vitamin B1, or thiamin, helps prevent complications in the nervous system, brain, muscles, heart, stomach, and intestines. It is also involved in the flow of electrolytes into and out of muscle and nerve cells.

It helps prevent diseases such as beriberi, which involves disorders of the heart, nerves, and digestive system.

Vitamin B6

More specifically, vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) — one of the eight — plays key roles in keeping the brain and nervous system functioning properly, says Sonya Angelone, RDN, a spokesperson for the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. “Vitamin B6 is involved in production of hemoglobin, the protein in blood that carries oxygen throughout the body.”

Vitamin B6 is also needed for proper brain development (in kids) and function (for people of all ages). It helps the body make the hormones serotonin (which regulates mood) and norepinephrine (which helps your body cope with stress). Vitamin B6 also helps the body make melatonin, which is important in helping regulate your internal clock and your sleep.

Plus a growing body of research suggests that getting adequate B6 is important for aging brains, too. Small studies suggest that the combination of vitamin B6, B12, and folate may play a role in slowing cognitive decline and age-related memory loss, which is reason to suspect that the vitamins may help decrease risk of stroke, Alzheimer’s disease, and depression, according to a review article published in the October 2004 issue of the Canadian Medical Association Journal. Other experts have called for larger, more conclusive studies to help explain exactly how important the B vitamins are when it comes to those outcomes.

Low levels of vitamin B6 in older adults have been linked to depression, but research has not shown that B6 is an effective treatment for mood disorders.

Vitamin B6 may prevent a decline in brain function by decreasing homocysteine levels that have been associated with Alzheimer’s disease and memory impairments. However, studies have not proven the effectiveness of B6 in improving brain health.

Not getting enough vitamin B6 can lead to low hemoglobin and anemia, so supplementing with this vitamin may prevent or treat these issues.

Some research has indicated that high doses of vitamin B6 may be effective at decreasing anxiety and other mood issues associated with PMS due to its role in creating neurotransmitters.

Vitamin B6 supplements in doses of 30–75 mg a day have been used as an effective treatment for nausea and vomiting during pregnancy.

Vitamin B6 may help reduce high homocysteine levels that lead to narrowing of arteries. This may minimize heart disease risk.

Vitamin B6 supplements may reduce your risk of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Additionally, adequate blood levels of B6 may prevent issues that affect the retina. However, more research is needed.

Inflammation associated with rheumatoid arthritis may lower blood levels of vitamin B6. Supplementing with high doses of B6 may help correct deficiencies and reduce inflammation, but more research is needed to confirm these effects.

Vitamin B12

Vitamin B12 is part of the Vitamin B complex. It is considered to be a “Painkilling vitamin”. It helps DNA production, cardiovascular support, and energy metabolism. In this post, learn more about Vitamin B12, its functions, causes of deficiencies, as well as foods and other sources so you can better incorporate B12 into your life.

Vitamin B12 is a very important marker to monitor, especially if you haven’t been leading the best lifestyle or you have known chronic health issues.

Vitamin B12, also referred to as cobalamin, is a water-soluble vitamin.

It contributes to the successful synthesis of DNA, the normal functioning of the nervous system, and the production of energy.

The liver is the main site of storage of vitamin B12 in the human body (R). Humans can obtain vitamin B from dietary sources, fortified foods, and supplements.

It can take the form of cyano-, hydroxyl, methyl, and deoxyadenosylcobalamin.

Cyanocobalamin, the most stable and unnatural form of vitamin B12, is most commonly used in supplements and does not have a direct cofactor role in cellular metabolism.

The most biologically significant forms of vitamin B12 are methylcobalamin and coenzyme B12 (5’-deoxy-5’-adenosylcobalamin)

Vitamin B12 was considered the “Painkilling Vitamin” in some countries as far back as the 1950’s

Vitamin B12 helps with pain relief, brain health, sleeping patterns, depression, anti-inflammatory, skin, pregnancy and lactation, eye health, etc.

Vitamin B12 deficiency can cause infertility, darkening of the skin, low red blood cells, psychiatric and cognitive problems ‘pins and needles’, cognitive impairment, neuropathy, weakness, frailty, lower bone mass, swollen tongue.


Vitamin C

It’s one of the most important nutrients to your immune system, and it’s also intimately involved in the production of all your adrenal hormones. The highest concentration of Vitamin C in the body is actually the adrenal glands, so when put in a stressful situation, your adrenal glands use Vitamin C to produce the stress-response hormones. Needless to say, this is a must-have for any adrenal fatigue remedy.


White Willow Bark

Alleviates Acne

Willow bark extract can be found as an ingredient in cosmetics and personal care products due to its astringent, anti-inflammatory, and soothing properties. It contains salicylic acid, a BHA that is a natural exfoliant used in several acne treatments because it can help skin shed dead cells while clearing pores. It also contains phenolic acids, including salicin, salicortin and flavonoids, tannins, and minerals, which help with skin rejuvenation.

A study published in the journal Clinical Therapeutics found mild or moderate acne can be treated with nonprescription agents such as salicylic acid. This agent can reduce the number of primary lesions and therefore, the severity of all acne-related lesions. Salicylic acid has been shown to be more superior to benzoyl peroxide in reducing acne. Salicin in willow bark is believed to turn into salicylic acid when it's processed by the body.

Reduces Headaches

The consumption of white willow bark may help reduce the tension from headache-related pain. It contains the chemical salicin similar to acetylsalicylic acid in aspirin. The University of Maryland Medical Center states feeling the effects of willow bark may take longer to experience, but the effects can last longer compared to aspirin.

Eases Lower Back Pain

Willow bark supplements could be a natural remedy for lower back pain, neck, and muscle aches. Brennecke believes its fine to take white willow bark to help relieve some of that pain. “The components of white willow bark inhibit cyclooxygenase, which is responsible for the formation of prostaglandins, which is an inflammatory mediator. By stopping the formation of prostaglandins, white willow bark acts as an anti-inflammatory agent,” he said.

A 2001 study published in the journal Rheumatology found in a group of nearly 200 people with low back pain, those who received willow bark showed a significant improvement in pain compared to those who received a placebo. Moreover, those who received higher doses of the herb, specifically 240 mg salicin, experienced more significant pain relief than those who received a low dose of 120 mg salicin.

Reduces Arthritis and Osteoarthritis Pain

Willow bark can be an effective treatment for reducing arthritis and osteoarthritis-related pain by decreasing the swelling. By inhibiting cyclooxygenase and therefore, prostaglandins, according to Brennecke, it will reduce inflammation, thereby lessening the crippling pain. It's suspected white willow bark extract may regularly suppress the progression and onset of the disease. A 2004 study published in the Journal of Rheumatology found people with osteoarthritis who took willow bark extract providing 240mg of salicin reduced their pain by 14 percent compared to two percent in the placebo in a two-week randomized controlled trial.

Prevents Heart Attacks

The American Heart Association acknowledges a daily low-dose of aspirin a day can prevent heart attacks and stroke. The tablet has been linked to reducing the risk of internal clotting, which is related to these two health conditions. Since the effects of aspirin and willow bark have been comparable, it is believed willow bark extract may reap similar benefits.

“White Willow bark contains salicylates,” which means it has the same effect on the heart as aspirin does, according to Brennecke. Although drinking white willow bark tea can thin the blood like aspirin — making it less likely to clot — it’s important to know how much salicylates you get in each cup and monitor that amount.

Soothes Menstrual Cramps

Typically, menstrual cramps are usually the result of inflammation of the uterine lining and the contractions triggered by prostaglandins. Willow bark is believed to regulate the production of prostaglandins and reduce inflammation, which helps soothes not only cramps but PMS symptoms. According to the University of Maryland Medical Center, professional herbalists recommend willow bark for menstrual cramps although there are no scientific studies to show it works.

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